I. Laying Plans in "Art of War" by Sun Zhu

**I believe even though this was primarily written as a treatise on military strategy, this is incredibly applicable to daily life.

1. Sun Tzu said:  The art of war is of vital importance
   to the State.
2. It is a matter of life and death, a road either
   to safety or to ruin.  Hence it is a subject of inquiry
   which can on no account be neglected.
3. The art of war, then, is governed by five constant
   factors, to be taken into account in one’s deliberations,
   when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field.
4. These are:  (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth;
   (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline.
5,6. The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete
   accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him
   regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.
7. Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat,
   times and seasons.
8. Earth comprises distances, great and small;
   danger and security; open ground and narrow passes;
   the chances of life and death.
9. The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom,
   sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness.
10. By method and discipline are to be understood
   the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions,
   the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance
   of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the
   control of military expenditure.
11. These five heads should be familiar to every general:
   he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them
   not will fail.
12. Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking
   to determine the military conditions, let them be made
   the basis of a comparison, in this wise:–
13. (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued
       with the Moral law?
   (2) Which of the two generals has most ability?
   (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven
       and Earth?
   (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced?
   (5) Which army is stronger?
   (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained?
   (7) In which army is there the greater constancy
       both in reward and punishment?
14. By means of these seven considerations I can
   forecast victory or defeat.
15. The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts
   upon it, will conquer:  let such a one be retained in command!
   The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it,
   will suffer defeat:–let such a one be dismissed!
16. While heading the profit of my counsel,
   avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances
   over and beyond the ordinary rules.
17. According as circumstances are favorable,
   one should modify one’s plans.
18. All warfare is based on deception.
19. Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable;
   when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we
   are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away;
   when far away, we must make him believe we are near.
20. Hold out baits to entice the enemy.  Feign disorder,
   and crush him.
21. If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him.
   If he is in superior strength, evade him.
22. If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to
   irritate him.  Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant.
23. If he is taking his ease, give him no rest.
   If his forces are united, separate them.
24. Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where
   you are not expected.
25. These military devices, leading to victory,
   must not be divulged beforehand.
26. Now the general who wins a battle makes many
   calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought.
   The general who loses a battle makes but few
   calculations beforehand.  Thus do many calculations
   lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat:
   how much more no calculation at all!  It is by attention
   to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose.

Translated from Chinese By LIONEL GILES, M.A. (1910)

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~ by cjt on March 6, 2009.

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